UNIT I: NUMBER SYSTEMS1. REAL NUMBERS Euclid's division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of results - irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals. UNIT II: ALGEBRA1. POLYNOMIALS Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients. 2. PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES Pair of linear equations in two variables and their graphical solution. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically - by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations. 3. QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2+bx+c=0, (a ≠ 0). Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization, by completing the square and by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Situational problems based on quadratic equations related to day to day activities to be incorporated. 4. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS Motivation for studying Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems. UNIT III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY1. LINES (In two-dimensions) Concepts of coordinate geometry, graphs of linear equations. Distance formula. Section formula (internal division). Area of a triangle. UNIT IV: GEOMETRY1. TRIANGLES Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles.
2. CIRCLES Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer to the point.
3. CONSTRUCTIONS
UNIT V: TRIGONOMETRY1 . INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0° and 90°. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30°, 45° and 60°. Relationships between the ratios. 2. TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES Proof and applications of the identity sin2A + cos2A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles. 3. HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation / depression should be only 30°, 45°, 60°. UNIT VI: MENSURATION1. AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60°, 90° and 120° only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken). 2. SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES (i) Problems on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinders/cones. Frustum of a cone. (ii) Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problems. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken). UNIT VII: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY1. STATISTICS Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph. 2. PROBABILITY Classical definition of probability. Simple problems on single events (not using set notation). Previous Level...Maths Class 9 Next Level...Maths Class 11 |
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